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Waec Past Question Papers Mathematics

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow
Vol.1 No.2

ISSN 2249-9962
November|2011
www.ijbmt.com Page | 1
Examination Malpractices In Nigerian Schools:Environmental Influences And Management Strategies
Prof.

Williams Olusola Ibukun, Dean, School Of Postgraduate Studies Dr.

Babatope Kolade Oyewole, Department Of Educational Foundations And Management

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow
Vol.1 No.2

ISSN 2249-9962
November|2011
www.ijbmt.com Page | malpractice is one of the greatest social menace and cankerworms that has eaten deep into Nigerian educational system.

The rate at which this academic dishonesty is growing is very alarming.

The types of examination malpractices have been found to range from impersonation, various forms of collusion, spying and mutual exchange of materials, assault of invigilators and hiring of thugs to disrupt examinations.

This paper examines the magnitude of examination malpractices in Nigeria; the underlying causes of examination malpractices in Nigeria, the environmental influences of examination malpractices in Nigeria and the management strategies to stem the problem.

In order to solve the problem of examination malpractices, a concerted social system approach is suggested.

It concludes that the issues of equity, public mental re orientation and stable economic and political systems should be addressed to reduce the spate of examination malpractices in educational system in Nigeria is currently facing innumerable challenges.

The system can be said to be in a state of stress.

This crisis, as Coombs (1968) labelled the global phenomenon has been occasioned in the main by gro

First, there is soaring demand for education in the face of dwindling resource allocation to the system.

In spite of the rush and clamour for more education, their economic system is not expanding enough to cater for the employment needs of school leavers.

Secondly, the Nigerian society at large appears to be in a flux.

The materialistic value system generated by the dynamics of change in the country appears to be destructive to the educational system.

The effects of the imbalances in the Nigerian educational system has led to the perceived stress currently being questioned in the light of the growing challenges in the preparation and examination of the products of the school system.

Eckstein (2003) observed that cheating in examinations are evident in developed and developing countries but the security regulations and means of implementing them are not universally provided and often ineffective.

The present paper examines one of the dimensions of the crisis in the school system in Nigeria today Examination Malpractices.

Specifically, this paper will address the following:

(1) Magnitude of Examination malpractices in Nigeria.

(2)
The underlying causes of examination malpractices

(3)
The environmental influences of examination malpractices

(4) Management strategies to stem the problem.

Magnitude of Examination Malpractices in Nigeria

That there are malpractices in the process of examination in Nigeria is no longer news.

The concern in contemporary society is the alarming extent of the frequency and dimensions of examination problems.

Indeed whether in the primary, secondary or tertiary levels in the school system, the problems of cheating and other sharp practices have been noted.

Months before and after the West African School Certificate Examination in Nigeria, the media is replete with alarming comments on leakages of question papers, various forms of cheating in the examination halls and post-examination arrangements to falsify results.

The Daily Times of Nigeria July 4, 1995 writes under an alarming caption that 72,516 Nigerian candidates were involved in various forms of examination malpractices in the 1994 Senior School Certificate Examinations.

The logical question to ask with this astronomical figure is how many sat for the examination without one form of cheating or the other.

The types of examination malpractices have been found to range

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow
Vol.1 No.2

ISSN 2249-9962
November|2011
www.ijbmt.com Page | 3

from impersonation, various forms of collusion, spying, mutual exchange of materials, assault of invigilators and hiring of thugs to disrupt examinations.

Other form of examination malpractices identified by WAEC include assistance of candidates by invigilators to answer or have clue to difficult concepts, while some invigilators also go to the extent of answering some parts of the question for candidates (Kayode, 2011).

Examination supervision is today a hazardous assignment in Nigeria.

Aisha (2011) opined that examination malpractice is a cankerworm that portends grave dangers for the nation.

The magnitude of examination malpractices has increased over the years.

(See table I in appendix).

Available data shows that for instance while there were 1,047 cases in the Rivers State in the August/September 1991 GCE Examinations.

The incidence of malpractices had escalated to 6,319 in the May/June 1992 Exams and 9,879 in the May/June 1993 Examinations.

Bendel State (now Edo/Delta States) had 3,231 cases in the 1991 August/September GCE, Edo/Delta (the new names) had 5,968 in the 1992 May/June Exams but in the 1993 May/June School Certificate Exams, Delta had 13,106 cases while Edo separately had 7,339 cases.

This upward trend is reflective of what happens in other states of the Federation.

This is to say that those states with low examination malpractice cases also have an upward incidence in the number of such cases in subsequent years.

Katsina is an example of a location with this trend-low but increasing incidence of examination problems.

Ogunji (2011) notes that since 1991 to date in Nigeria, examination cheating have taken incredible and sophisticated dimension in both

secondary and tertiary educational institutions.

Adenipekun (2004) observed
that the five major examination bodies (JAMB, WAEC, NECO, NABTEB and NTI) cancel an average of 740,000 results on account of massive malpractice.

An average of 450 principals, supervisors, invigilators and examiners are blacklisted for their involvement in abetting examination malpractice each year.

About 9,000 students are handed to the police at various centres each year.

In similar vein, Guloma (2011) remarked that examination bodies cancel an average of 429,000 results yearly which experts say amount to N21 billion wastage.

In 2007 for example, a total of 324 schools that were identified to be involved in examination malpractices were blacklisted.

The then Minister of Education, Dr.

(Mrs) Oby Ezekwesili endorsed de-recognition of the schools as centres for examinations from 2007 to 2010.

Public campaigns and enlightenment programmes embarked on by government and non-governmental agencies on the need to eliminate examination malpractices have not yielded the desired results, not even the introduction of jail terms for culprits.

Whereas in the past, students tended to hide the acts, now they advertise them with reckless abandon.

The incidence of examination malpractices in Nigeria has spread to virtually both urban and rural areas.

malpractices and came up with excellent result at the end of the day.

In the past examination malpractice was regarded as a backlash of urbanisation and civilization.

At that time examination problems were thought to be limited to the growing centres of Western civilization.

Today however, every nook and cranny of the country has its taste of the disease
waec past question papers mathematics
.

Appeals are being made to Obas, Obis and Emirs to help WAEC and NECO in its war against examination malpractices.

It seems then that the problem of cheating in examinations is a national issue requiring unified attention.
Perhaps faced with the growing incidence of examination malpractice the Nigerian Military Government in 1984 issued decree 20 specifying twenty one years of imprisonment for people tried and convicted for examination malpractices and related problems.

However, Examination Malpractice Act 33 of 1999 reversed the above decree but stipulates punishment ranging from a fine of N50, 000.00 to N100, 000.00 and imprisonment for a term of three to four years with or without option of fine.

Even with the positive measures in place, it is doubtful if there had been a reduction in the incidence of examination problems in the country.

Today, the problem continues to escalate in its various forms and in alarming proportions.

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow
Vol.1 No.2

ISSN 2249-9962
November|2011
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In a typical examination day, students have gone to the extent of bringing prepared answers into examination halls.

That is, after paying exorbitant fees to buy question papers from unscrupulous vendors and WAEC officials.

It is alleged that having had opportunity of access to live questions, some candidates merely come in to submit their prepared answers.

This is said to be easy through the collusion of centre supervisors and examination invigilators.

It is the case today, that even when a candidate is absent from a particular examination/subject, that is not an indication he would fail the examination.

It may be the reverse, particularly when a more brilliant impostor had taken his place in the examination hall.

His absence could result in a distinction grade in the subject:

On examination days, questions are smuggled out to commissioned writers who stay in nearby classrooms or bushes to write answers direct from textbooks.

Such prepared answers are smuggled back through a network of paid agents into the examination pack.

Causes of Examination Malpractice in Nigeria

The causal factors of examination malpractices in Nigeria have been traced to several sources including, the society, forces within the school system, the Examing body and Government attitude to education.

(a) The Society and examination malpractices.

The Nigerian society is corrupt and decadent.

It would be asking for the impossible to expect that the school as microcosm will be different.

The school system mirrors the society.

Hence the corrupt tendencies, sharp practices, 419 syndromes in the society have been replicated in the school as an organization within the societal supra-a downward trend in the incidence of examination malpractices and ills in the school system.(b) Class system and examination malpractices.

It has been observed that the Nigerian society has gradually shifted from traditional communal system to one characterised by socio-economic stratification.

This has implications to examination problems in schools.

Parents who belong to the upper classes (the haves) want to maintain this advantaged position for themselves and their generation.

They go into ridiculous and unwholesome extent to ensure that their offspring pass examinations with high grades

so that they too could be in the so called elite and professional disciplines.

This is in spite of the fact that their children having been spoilt may naturally not make the required high grades in their examinations.

Such parents have been found to aid/approve malpractices and sometimes directly influence the examination system to favour their wards.

An influential parent in an attempt to secure admission for his child in a school once remarked before a highly placed university official: from....I had been warned to pay for a higher score.

I did not know this will not reach the

cut-off mark.That is, the kind of parents in the Nigerian society today who would perpetrate heinous crimes to get what they want.
(c) Over-reliance on certificates and examination performance:

a disproportionate emphasis on examinations even while moral issues, attitudes and indepth broad based knowledge are neglected.

Whether in the primary, secondary or tertiary level of the Nigerian educational system, from the first day at school, the inexorable presence of examination depresses or reduces the level of happiness of students.

The emphasis placed on certificates for the purpose of admission and employment has led to the crave to pass examination at all costs (Nwana, 2000).

In the developed countries of the world, practical experience and capabilities on the job have been given more priority rather than possession of raw certificates.

The Diploma disease (Dore, 1978) has contributed to the high incidence of examination malpractices in Nigeria.

Alarape and Onokoya (2003) were not wrong when they concluded that cheating is gradually becoming a means of getting ahead academically and this is a major problem facing students today.

International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow
Vol.

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ISSN 2249-9962
November|2011
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(d) Cultism and examination malpractices.The incidence of cults and secret societies in Nigeria has also been observed to be related to examination malpractices.

It should be admitted that those involved in examination leakages work as a ring.

Students in the Nigerian school system are members of secret cults for the purpose of mutual benefit.

Connivance to cheat in school examinations has become one of the purposes of secret cults in the school system.

The war against cultism and drug abuse in the Nigerian society when carried to the schools could have attenuating effect on examination malpractices.

(e) Unemployment trends and examination malpractices in Nigeria

among school leavers has risen.

In the absence of reliable labour statistics, as high as half of the products of secondary schools and possibly 40 percent of university graduates could be in the category of educated but unemployed in Nigeria.

A situation where graduates wait for three to upwards of six years to get employed is unsatisfactory and wasteful.

The negative effect is that it has been observed that most of those who impersonate to write examination for others do so on contract and as a way of employment.

Graduates who have spent three without thinking of the moral and criminal implications of their action.

Of course the individual, it is believed must exist first, before moral or criminal issues could have relevance.

It is the hope that when the society satisfies its duty of providing jobs to integrate youths into its fold, the social malaise of examination malpractice will substantially reduce in Nigeria.

(f) Poor academic performance and examination malpractices

The poor performance of students in public examinations could be one of the major causes of examination malpractice in Nigeria.

When students observe that however hard they tried because they had been ill-prepared for their examinations, they could still perform badly, the alternative could be to avert such disaster through cheating.

The underlying factors of poor performance among students particularly at the secondary school system is multifaceted.There is the teacher factor, poor resource situation, instability of educational policies, strikes and general lack of motivation among teachers and students.Instability of various kinds-political, social and economic in Nigeria often leads to poor programme planning and implementation.

At times, the teachers go on strik.

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