Relationship Between Culture And Development

Relationship Between Culture And Development


ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE WITHIN SCHOOLS OF NURSING Debra K.Vankovich Mullins, Ed.D.Marshall University College of Education and Human Services Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the

Marshall University Graduate College In partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Educational Leadership Committee Chair, Dr.Powell E.Toth, Ph.D.

, transformational leadership, transactional leadership, Copyright 2007 by Debra K.

V.Mullins eadership Styles and

Organizational Culture within Debra K.Vankovich Mullins

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership styles and organizational culture within schools of nursing.

A non-probability convenience sample (N=149) of subjects were obtained from BSN schools of nursing tools were utilized including a demographic Questionnaire (Bass & Avolio) which measures transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles; and the Organizational Culture Assessment Inventory (Cameron & Quinn) which measures four cultuan, market, adhocracy statistics utilized included multiple regressions using analysis of variance and Pearsons correlations.

Significant relationships were evidenced as follows: the main research cant relationships between the three leadership styles (transformational, organizational culture.

With each regression analysis, based on the significance of the beta coefficient parameter estimate, the results showed that measures for transformational predictive value for the Adhocracy and Market Cultures.DEDICATION

I would like to dedicate this dissertation to my beloved family who has been a many, many years ago.

My family includes my father Bill Vankovich, husband John, children

Bill, Chris, Kim and Stephen, granddaughters Chey and Jodee, and sisters, Brenda and Donna.

I want to especially dedicate this dissertation to the memory of my beloved mother, Marjorie as well as my grandparents, Gazel and my dear mother, I would like to say: is because of you And And love you more than words can ever express.


I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who offered support ational process that began many, many years ago.

My family and friends were always there when I needed them the most.

Special thanks to Dr.Powel Toth, my committee chair for all his patience, understanding and guidance.

My heartfelt appreciation goes out to Dr.Mike Burton and Dr.

Jerry Jones for serving oncommittee members for making the oral defense as painless as possible.

I would like to also thank Dr.Eagle for all her assistance these past several years.

My secretary, om disaster with this word processor, I give my praises.Finally, my friend, Dr.Paula Reilley who has assisted me by offering her expertise and guidance, I want to say thank you.

To my knowledge, I am the first one degree.

Education was always one of our most important family values.

Two of my siblings have college degrees, both in education and all four of my children graduated from the University of Charleston with bachelor degrees.

My son, Bill,

has earned a graduate degree in counseling from Marshall and daughter Kimberly,

I have my parents, Bill and Marjorie Vankovich, to thank for instilling in me the desire to keep going -- to

keep climbing

Hopefully, I have passed on this family value on to my children and they will pass this on to our family -- generations into the future.TABLE OF CONTENTS DEDICATION iii TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES..vii CHAPTER 1 theory

Culture definitions

Significance of study

Limitations of study

26 CHAPTER 2 theory

Nursing education leadership

Culture theory

83 CHAPTER 3 ....



Research design

Leadership Culture Assessment RESULTS

Presentation and analysis of data


Summary of Purpose

Research Questions

Summary of Procedures

Summary of Descriptive Data

Summary of Inferential Data
for Further Research

118 REFERENCESAPPENDICES Appendix A.Human Subjects Exemption B.

Letter to Program C.Cover Letter

Appendix D.Instruction Packet

Appendix E.Demographic F.MLQ

Appendix G.

167 LIST OF TABLES Demographic profile of participants ( profile of participants (work related)

105 riables as measured by the MLQ 106 ables as measured by the OCAI 107 Multiple regression of leadership styles

108 leadership styles and culture 109 styles on culture

109 CHAPTER I Introduction

Leadership and culture haeffective function of organizations.Attempts re during the early 1970s.These preliminary extracted from this initial research demonstrates the impact of leadership and culture on & DeBack, 1991; Meighan, 1990; Dunham & Klafehn, 1990; Redmond, 1991; Bryman, o, 1994;Deal, & Kennedy, 1982; Ouchi, 1981; Peters, & Waterman, 1982; Kilmann, Saxton, Lundberg, & Martin (Eds.) 1985; Schein, 1984; Ward, & Kumiega, 1990; Ott, 1989; Denison, 1990; Coeling, & Wilcox, 1988; Krorganizations.According to the literature, leadership can transform cultures from the nities, instill commitment to change and develop new strategies to focus energy and resources.Quality cultures are conducive to enhancing work environments and may have a positive impact with areas (Schein, 1996).

Relevant to the functioning of organizations is the premise that leadership quality is the key to cultures of excellence (Krame (1985), contends that the most imthe creation and molding of adership is a dynamic process dependent One's behavior in relation to a is influenced by the attitudes and beliefs members within an organization leader will therefore have direct ramifications upon the organizational environment and culture (Bass, 1985; Barker, 1990).

The leadership will not only transform the individual, encourages autonomy within the organizational environment and assists in creating an organizational culture which results in both llevel of motivation and morality (Burns, 1978).Leadership is an essential element in transformation of organizational culture (Penrod & Dolence, 1992).Peters and Watermandetermining the quality of organizations.

Clark, Cronenwet, Thompson, & Reeves of an organization.The leader who firmly establishes the corporate culture can mold and administrator who can influence a culture in a constructive manner is a necessary task for any organization.
According to Schein (1985) leadership is intermeshed with the formation, evolution, transformation and even the destrucmay influence employee behavior (Schei Sinha, 1999).Schein (1985) contends that culture is carried out by the of behavior.

It is expressed by rituals, rites of passage, and symbols.

Culture is something to which the leader must be aware of and sensitive.

Leaders within organizations such as instucation must assess and implement changes to various aspects ofsuch as mission, statement of philosophy, persplanning, marketing strategy, and image-making.

This is necessary to maintain credibility of the institution and meet criteria for various accrediting bodies, maintain standards of educational making do not rely on traditional methods of le(Lowery, 1991).
Organizations as systems function within a network of interacting component eaders, followers, and the environment in r, 1979).

Characteristics of the influence exerted by the environment are described threcruitment, selection, promotion and deletion of members within an organization have great impact on cultural growththrough the recruitment and retention of members selected bye cultural ideals and assumpperpetuating the culture.

Leaders have the power to form, transform, or destroy a particular culture.

Current employees are usually retained and promotedcriteria related to cultural congruency.

Understanding the relationship that exists between the rstanding the functioning of the organization (Schein, 1985; 1996).

leader, one must be able to accurately assess the organizational culture may provide an importabehaviors of individuals in an organization.

When an employees beliefs agree with the be perceived as good.

When an employees be deemed poor (Marquis & Huston, 1997).The success or failure of the culture may be determined by the leader and by the people chosen by the leader to dwell within the system.

It is therefore imperative that the leader understand and recognize the complexity and importance of culture (del Bueno &

Schein, contends (1985) that one of the most important and unique functions of a framework for more effective organizational performance (Bass & Avolio, 1993).

The positive cultures (Peters & Waterman, 1982) then it is imperative to have a leader with the ability to cultivate quality within the culture.

The connection between leadership and cutransform an organization and change a culture (Lewis, 1996)
relationship between culture and development
.The importance of p between leadership and organizational culture, particularly the development and change in cultural ideology, is illustrated by the research of Peters and at well-managed companies had strong cultures talents of the leaders are reflected in the orgato be successful and influential leader it is necessary to uncover the cultural indicators such as values and assumptions and make conscious decisions about transforming culture through compliance or noncompliance to the norms and values within (del Bueno &

While Schein (1985) states that "leadership and culture are two sides of the same by itself" (p.

2), the dimensions of the relationship between leadershiping of clarity may be due to the complexity and nature of culture and the developmental nature of the instruments (Hoy & Miskel, 1991).

Although numerous studies exist concerthe majority of research has been set in business, government and military environments.ustively examined as separate entities, tionship between these twfewer studies have been conducted examining (ERIC and the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health, 1985 - 2001).Lewis the documentation of leadership and culture (Chaffee & Tierney, 1988; Chait, 1988; Dill, 1982; Masland, 1985; Farazmand, 1999).

Limited research exists relevant to transformational leadership and culture within higher education settings particularly schools of nursing.Previous studies investigating these concepts will serve as citations within this text since the elements of leadership and organizational culture may be the same within any organization (Chaffee & Tierney, 1988; Dill, 1982, Masland, 1985; Wills & Lincoln, 1999; Mulhare, 1999).

It was not until the beginning of the 1980s that organizational scholars and leaders begin to realize the importance ofPascale & Athos, 1981; Peters & Waterman, 1982; Deal & Kennedy, 1982).

Prior to this time, researchers had focused on documexisting management models.

Culture was totally ignored.The values, underlying assumptions, expectations, collective memories, and definitions in an organization were not considered critical components to the effn.

Researchers and scholars attempted to zations from old, out-dated models.

The innovator of modern management, Peter Drucker (1962) people do not understand the world anymore and future.

The fast-paced changes that have occurred in technology and communications within the past several decades have made it alarmingly difficult for organizations to stay maintain the constancy ofon numerous failed organizations in the past several decades (Cameron & Quinn, 1999).

organizations culture as reason for doom or ons (CSC Index, 1994; Caldwell, 1994; Gross, Pascale, & Athos, 1993; Kotter and Heskett, 1992).

an important determinant of effective organizations and has an important impact on attitudes, behavior, and function Like leadership, culture cont all important aspect of ganizational culture was the idea that there was something within effective organizations that set them apart from organizations of similar function (Cameron & Quinn, 1999).

Due to the abstract nature of culture, attempts to define, yet alone operationalize Corporate culture is the pameaning of an institution for its members and behavior in their organization other symbolic vehicles for expressing these common understandings.Organizational cultures represent the collective, shared meaning of existence in learns to cope with its problems of extee held with some emotional investment and integrated into a logical system or cognitive map that contains cognitions thinking, feeling, and action (Sackman, 1991, p.34).

According to Cameron and Quinn (1999) there has been a general lack of in conducting cultural

Numerous researchers contend that culture should include the total environmental quaresearchers believe that culture should be measured by objective or perceptual measures.

zational members believed it to be.

However culture.

Cameron and Quinn (1999) contend that eculture.

The components of culture include the unique language, symbols, rules, and ethnocentric feelings.

The organizations culture is reflected by what is valued, the dominant leadership styles, language and symbols, procedures and routines.

Culture has a powerful effect on the performance and lEmpirical research has demonstrated the importance of culture to enhancing organizational performance (Cameron & Et1992) interviewed 75 financial analysts.

Each analyst compared the performance of twelve highly su The impact of culture is not only evident to the organizational-level effect, but the impact of culture is also demonstrated on the individual pertaining to employee morale, commitment, productivity, health and well-being (Kozlowshi, Chao, Smith, & Hedlund, 1993).

With health care costs g at an all time high, there llars spent each year in reladissatisfaction.Sick days, workers compensation, employee replacement and retraining rlying culture may lead to nd improve the overall effectiveness of Numerous models exist that measure organidemonstrate the importance of culture on organizations, Cameron & Quinn (1999) developed the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI).

This instrument Hierachy Culture is a formalized and structured e the key to government and running of the organization.

Long-term concerns are stability, predictability and efficiency.

Formal rules and policies

The Market Culture is a glue of the organization is the emphasis on winning.

The Clan Culture is a friendly place to work.

People share much of their-selves.

Leaders are mentors.

The emphasis is the long-term development of team-work and ition are important components.

The Adhocracy Culture is dynamic, entrwillingness for change are key aspects of this culture.

In research conducted by Cameron and Freeman (1991) using the OCAI, an examination was made of the relationship between three dimensions of culture

cultural nal effectiveness.

Cameron identified the dimensions of organizational effectiveness inh effectiveness differed between different ffectiveness as cultural type.

There were no statistically significant differences betweencultures and various dimeeffectiveness.

There were significant differences when comparing the culture types with effectiveness.

The results indicated that: Clan-type cultures were most effective in domains of performance relating to

communication and supportiveness.

This culture had high cohesion, collegiality in decision making and sense of identity and mission.Adhocracy-type cultures were most effective in domains of performance related to adaptation, system openness, innovation and cutting-edge knowledge.

This Market-type cultures were most effective in domains of performance related to viability.

This culture was characteristrategies.any performance domain.

This culture was characterized by tight fiscal control.

As evidenced by the literature review, empirical research has been conducted pertaining to transformational leadership and culture in corporate settings.

Leadership been more difficult to ve attempted to determine the relationship that may exist between the two re been examined within schools of nursing.

The ability to extrapolate prior research findings related to transformational leadership and of nursing environments is problematic and has yet to be transformational leaders who are able to develop positive cultures.

Leadership is essential in shaping the cuPrinciples of leadership and culture derived from previous research of business, military, and government could be applicable to schools of nursing.

Because academic organizations must be managed just as any other organization (Dill, 1982; Masland, ucation administrators is to create an environment or culture that promotes teaching effectiveness (Association of American of knowledge demonstrating a relationshiResearch Questions The purpose of this study is to determine faculty perceptionsrelationship between measurements of trleadership, laissez-faire leadership and organizational culture withinUtilization of Bass (1985) and Bass & Avolios (1991) transformational and transactional leadership model and Cameron model will provide the framework for this study.

The results may benefit nursing education by augmenting the delivery of nursing education.becoming aware through observation and detection phenomenon.

This perception is based on the assumption that the way the phenomenon is being seen at the time is the one and only way of seeing what is real.This phenomenon lture is influenced by numeenvironment which are perceptually baspecific frame of reference by the program cleadership in the literature are pere relationship and the meaning of this perception will provide increased insight into the depth and complexity of the phenomenon under investigation

This study is designed to determine thfollows: Is there a statistically significant relationship between transformational leadership Is there a statistically significant relationship between transactional leadership Is there a statistically significant relationship between laissez-faire leadership and

The study being conducted is based on Bass (1985) model of transformational leadership and Cameron and Quinns (1999) model of culture.

This researcher is assuming that this model is applicable to the ng leaders may identify their own leadership style.

However, this may lead to a biased interpfaculty to observe and identify l of the NEL and program coordinator.

The instrument being used to study NEL lsubordinates.

The subordinate raters will be determined by the NEL instead of by an Operational Definitions 1.School of nursing department chairs will be the nurse education leader (NEL) employed by BSN (baccalaureate schools of nursing) from National League of Nursing accredited baccalaureate schools of nursing within the Southern Regional Education 2.

Leadership style of the NEL will be the independent variable.Leadership will be defined as scores on the 45 item Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire version 5X MLQ (Bass, 1994) to obtain transformational, transaAvolio, & Goodheim,
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