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(2), 393-398 (2009)Corresponding email@example.com 394 Antibacterial Activity
The antimicrobial activities of plant extracts may reside in a variety of different components, including aldehyde and phenolic compounds .Naturally occurring combinations of these compounds can be synergistic and often results in crude extracts having greater antimicrobial activity than the purified individual constituents .In this work, we have selected two plants, namely Achyranthes aspera (family Amaranthaceae; local name, apang) and Cassia alata (family Caesalpinaceae; local name, DadmardanA.aspera is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions, including the Indian sub-continent, Africa, Australia and America .C.alata, commonly known as Candlebrush, is a tropical shrub having yellow flowers and large leaves whose juice is used as a cure for ringworm and poisonous bites .
Both of them are commonly used in Bangladesh as herbal medicine.This study was conducted to address their antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic bacteria causing acute diarrhea,other diseases, when extracted their leaf and stem parts in different organic solvents.2.
Materials and Methods 2.1.
Bacteria and growth conditions Five bacterial species were employed as test organisms which include E.coli 25922), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 27785), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 103207), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6623) and Vibrio cholerae (ATCC 9458).
The bacteria were maintained in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MH).Inocula were prepared by adding an overnight culture of the organism in MH broth to obtain an OD 0.1.The cells were allowed to grow until they obtain the McFarland standard 0.5 (approximately 10 CFU/ml).The suspension were then diluted 1:100 in MH broth to obtain 10 CFU/ml.2.2.
Test plants and their extraction Cassia alataAchyranthes aspera were collected from the Chittagong region of Bangladesh for the study.
Both the leaf and stem parts of the plants were separated, washed with sterile water, dried at room temperature and then ground to powder using a grinder.
10 g of the powder is mixed with 40 ml of chloroform in a 250-ml conical flask and was kept at 25C for 12 h.The suspension was filtered through a Whatman no.4 filter paper and the filtrate was evaporated by vacuum dryer at 40C overnight to get the chloroform extract.After chloroform extraction, a part of the solid residue was dried at 40C overnight to remove residual chloroform.
The solid powder was resuspended in 40 ml ethyl acetate and kept at 25C for 12 h.
Ethyl acetate extract was recovered following the same procedure as stated for chloroform extract.Similarly, methanol and ethanol extracts were prepared by applying the same procedure
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grow on hair, skin and nails (Dubey and Maheshwari, 2004; Kayser et al., 2004). Herbal ... Cassia alata Candle stick plant Asurun Oyinbo Fabeceae 5. (hort.ufl.edu)
Antibacterial Activity Of Different Organic Extracts Of
grow until they obtain the McFarland standard 0.5 ... stem parts of Cassia alata and Achyranthes aspera against the five bacterial species are (academicjournals.org)
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both grow to fill out and be sold as 5 gallon trees by later this ... Candlestick Cassia Cassia alata Long a favorite in subtropical areas where it is a fast growing (banglajol.info)
T.Alam et al.J.
Sci.Res.1 (2), 393-398 (2009) 395 2.3.
Determination of antibacterial activity Sterile discs (Oxoid) were soaked separately with 50 l of each of the organic extract prepared in chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol solvents, at a concentration of 100 mg/ml and then dried.These discs were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar plates, previously swabbed with the target bacterial isolate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml.In one disc, the respective organic solvent was added as negative control to determine possible inhibitory activity of the solvent.This preparation was incubated for a period of 24 h at 30C.Antibacterial activity was defined as the diameter (mm) of the clear inhibitory zone formed around the discs.
The MIC of the extract was determined by tube dilution techniques in Mueller-Hinton broth (Merck) according to NCCLS .The range of concentration used was 156.25 to 5000 g/ml.The four last vials of each bacterium with no growth from the MIC procedure were streaked onto nutrient agar (NA) plates.
The plates were then incubated at 37C for 24 h.The lowest concentration that killed 100% of the inoculum bacteria (no growth on plate) was recorded as Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC).The results of the antimicrobial determinations for all the organic extracts of the leaf and stem parts of Cassia alata and Achyranthes aspera against the five bacterial species are investigated in a disc-diffusion assay.
1 illustrates a representative plate showing the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts from A.aspera and C.alata that produced zones of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureusabcdeabcdeabcdeFig.1.Antibacterial activity.
Petridish containing 50 l each of ethanolic extracts of the (a) leaf part , and leaf (d) and stem (e) parts of C.alata are placed in discs in a media previously swabbed with S.aureus culture.Zones of inhibition are shown in arrows as produced after overnight incubation.As positive and negative controls, chloramphenicol (c) and the ethanol solvent (b) absorbed in empty disc were used respectively.
396 Antibacterial Activity
While neither the leaf nor stem parts of A.
aspera in any organic extractions displayed no or low antibacterial activity, the methanolic extracts of both the leaf and stem parts of C.alata exhibited antibacterial activity, but only to B.
subtilisS.typhi.However, the ethanolic extracts of both the stem and leaf parts were found equally effective only to aureus.Virtually no inhibition of bacterial growth was observed for fraction extracted in
and V.cholerae were found resistant to the tested plants (Table 1).Table 1.Antibacterial assay of plant extracts by disc-diffusion method.Zone of inhibition (mm) as produced in different organic solvent extracts of the plants Target organi