How Does Facebook Messenger Work
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How Does Facebook Messenger Work

Burke chi2011 socialcapitalonfacebook
Differentiating Uses and Users Moira Burke and Robert Kraut Human-Computer Interaction Institute Carnegie Mellon University

5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 {moira, robert.kraut} @cmu.edu Cameron Marlow Facebook 1601 S.California Ave.Palo Alto, CA 94301 cameron@fb.com

ABSTRACT Though social network site use is often treated as a monolithic activity, in which all time is equally social and its impact the same for all users, we examine how Facebookongitudinal surveys matched to server logs from 415 Facebook users reveal that receiving messages from friends is associated withincreases in bridging social capital, but that other uses are not.However, using the site to passively consume news assists those with lower social fluency draw value from their connections.

The results inform site designers seeking to increase social connectedness and the value of those connections.

Author Keywords Social network sites, social capital, self-esteem, social skills, computer-mediated communication ACM Classification Keywords H.5.3 [Information Interfaces]: Group and Organization

Interfaces - Collaborative computing, Web-based interaction, Computer-supported cooperative work

General Terms Experimentation INTRODUCTION In its earliest days, when the Internet offered a small range of file transfer and communication services that were used by a relatively homogeneous population of early adopters, HCI researchers tended to treat both services and users monolithically.They , and the nature of the communication one has with them.As a result, many researchers have proposed that online communication and participation in social networking will influence ones social capital and the downstream psychological consequences.Wellman and colleagues crystallized the debate with a paper Does the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital?[37].

Cross-sectional research shows that compared to light users, people who use the Internet heavily have better social integration.

For example, heavier users participate more in organizations and are in more frequent contact with friends and relatives [37].Bloggers and photo sharers are more likely to confide in someone of a different race or discuss important matters with someone from a different political party relatively monolithic activity.

More recent studies have examined different types of use, often differentiating social activities from others 35].On the other hand, uses for entertainment (e.g., games and online movies) and communication with strangers are negatively associated with social capital [5,37].For example, adults with typical or high levels of offline social support who used the Internet to meet new people felt more depressed six months later [5].

DIFFERENTIATING SOCIAL NETWORK SITE ACTIVITIES A few studies have begun to differentiate uses of SNS
how does facebook messenger work
.College students motivated by social information-seeking, using SNS to learn about people they have met offline, and expressive information sharing, feel greater bridging social capital [12,31].However, these studies generally differentiate social media use based on motivations, rather than actual behavior.This focus on motivation occurs in part because fine-grained behavioral data are not available, while survey measures of users attitudes are easy to collect.In the current study, we focus on behavioras recorded in server logsand its impact on social capital, largely because motivations and actual behavior are rarely so cleanly connected.

Undergraduates use Facebook out of habit and

directed communication is likely useful for maintaining relationships with existing ties and encouraging the growth of new ones.In addition to its content, directed communication may be especially important because it tends to be exchanged with those wi26].Ellison and colleagues [12] found that young adults only consider a small fraction of their Facebook friends actual friends (75 out of 300), and that only these actual friends correlate with social capital.Gilbert and Karahalios [13] demonstrated that features of directed communicationits recency, duration, intimacy, and amountwere SNS: an aggregate stream of news (known as the News Feed on Facebook).

The News Feedresults to hold.INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND SOCIAL MEDIA USE Though few studies of social network sites take them into account, individual differences influence whether and how people use the Internet and the effects it has on them.Less socially skilled individuals may gravitate toward computer-mediated communication because it reduces social boundaries, and thus they might have more to gain from technology than their more socially connected peers [3].Personality components such as extroversion and neuroticism have been shown to affect ones choice of Internet activities and moderate the effect of those activities on affect, depression, and loneliness [5,23].

More introverted, less agreeable, and less conscientious college students spend more time online than their extroverted peers [25], which may be explained by extroverts spending their discretionary time in face-to-face social interactions, or introverts having fewer social obligations, freeing up additional time to spend online.Online channels allow greater control over self-presentation supporting the projection of an ideal self [36].

Caplan finds that some individuals with anxiety over self-presentation prefer interacting online because they feel safer, more efficacious, more confident, and more comfortable [9].However, this preference for interacting online is linked to compulsive Internet use and negative consequences, such as missing work [9].On the other hand, some introverts feel that they can better express Furthermore, they found that the effect was strongest for students with lower self-esteem.Therefore, we include self-esteem in the present study to validate those esteem and soc
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