History Of Native American Indians

History Of Native American Indians

Native americans
Replaced the old understanding of “White man good, Red man bad” with “Red man good, White man bad.”

contemplate the past from new—and often simplified stereotype with another doesn’t necessarily lead to better , after a wave of revisionism has run its course, historians often find themselves in the enviable position of being able to blend the best of the old with the best of the new, and produce more nuanced, thoughtful scholarship.

This is precisely where today’s historians of Native America find themselves, and they have produced some first-rate Indian histories.Still, there remain significant limitations to understanding Indian history.

The most notable is the problem of written sources.

Native American peoples, up until the nineteenth century or later, were generally pre-literate.

They transmitted memories of the past orally—but famines, wars, and diseases extinguished not een irretrievably lost.

Furthermore, during the contact and post-contact eras, many of those who documented Indian life—trappers, traders, missionaries, explorers, travelers, government descent, and their writings reflected White cultural biases and interests.

Although the Indians may have been the subject of these writings, the writings often reflected a non-Indian emerged in the 1950s and 1960s, is a methodology that blends anthropology and history.

It conversely, to use an understanding of a culture and its dynamics to answer historical questions.

What results is not necessarily “history from an Indian perspective,” but rather a history that is employed ethnohistorical methods to produce commendably sophisticated studies.The shortage of histories from an Indian viewpoint has been slowly but steadily remedied as time has progressed.

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries native peoples either created texts of their own or allowed their testimonies to be transcribed by others.

And, in the last several decades, greater numbers of historians of Indian descent have written their own histories, and are enriching the field of Indian history by adding long-absent native voices.

When studying any area of history, first-haunderstanding and a certain “feel” that is sometimes absent from synthetic accounts.

Native American history is no exception, and those studying it will benefit from reading these first-hand

References, Textbooks, and General Overviews Perhaps the most comprehensive and authoritative reference for Native American history is the

series published by the Smithsonian Institution under the general editorship of William C.


This twenty-volume series describes the history, es of North America.

Each volume focuses on the tribes of a particular region, and there are separate volumes on Indian-White relations and

Indian languages.

Frank W.Porter III edits a fifty-volume series from Chelsea House Publishers phs, drawings, and maps.

Most volumes are tribal histories, but there are volumes on thematic topics, too.

These books are written for secondary school students and are informative, easy-to-read introductions to Indian histories.

(Norman: University of Oklahoma, 2004); Colin G.Calloway, Edmunds, Frederick E.Hoxie, and Neal Salisbury, (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006).

Philip Weeks’s “, 2d ed.(Wheeling, Illinois: Harlan ghlighting important topics in Indian history that range from native relations with the colonial French, Spanish, and British up to the efforts to repatriate native artifacts and burial remains in the end of the twentieth century.

These texts are overlooked pre-nineteenth century Native American West.

James P.Rhonda’s One of the most popular surveys of Indian history is Dee Brown’s

(New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1970).

This book reflects the revisionist sentimentsconfinement of one tribe to reservation space after another.

The book ends with the 1890 Wounded Knee massacre—implying that meaningful Indian history in the West ended in the nineteenth century—and overlooks themes of cultural adaptation and persistence.

Nevertheless, this evocative, powerfully-written book has remained on “must read” lists for over three decades
history of native american indians
.White relations, as did Pontiac, Tecumseh, Osceola, Crazy Horse, Chief Joseph, and others.

Josephy was a talented , it has become a classic in the field.

R.David Edmunds has edited two volumes of biographical essays that present a more multidimensional understanding of Native American leadership.

(Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1980) is a collection of a dozen essays that examine native leadership paradigms from the middle of the eighteenth century through the middle of the

(Lincoln: University of

essays that discuss the lives of prominent overlooked story of twentieth century Native American leadership, and includes essays on five Indian leaders who are women.
Indian-White Relations and Policy

One of the leading authorities in the field of Indian-White relations is Francis Paul Prucha.

His masterful of Nebraska Press, 1984) examines the relationship between the United States government and Native Americans from the colonial era through the Carter administration.Anyone interested in U.S.

Indian poof California Press, 1985) that uses the concepts of paternalism, dependency, Indian rights, and self-determination to survey United States Indian policy.Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, reformers, philanthropists, and government officials wrestled with “the Indian with the Indians after they had been confined to reservations.

Thomas Jefferson was the first incorporate them into Anglo-American society.

The best book on Jefferson’s Indian pr
Native american history and culture3
Biography of Ernie LaPointe
2 Legendary Indian Chiefs: Leaders Who Advocated for Their Tribes

3 Artist Offers 21st-Century Interpretations of the American West

4 Artist Fritz Scholder Redefined Native American Art
6 Navajo Textbook Aims to Preserve Language, Culture

7 Laws Reflect Changing Status of American Indians in U.S.History

9 Sovereignty of Indian Tribes
10 U.S.Honors Contributions of American Indians, Alaska Natives

10 Links to Electronic Resources
12 Bibliography of New Books Available at the American Resource Center

13 Great Grandson of Sitting Bull visits Finland in June 2009 Native American History and Culture.

Oral history
Native American Oral History

and Cultural Interpretation

in Rocky Mountain National Park

Sally McBeth University of Northern Colorado

er Public Library, Western History Learning Center).

Their suggestions and detailed recommendations greatly facilitated revision of the manuscript; it is

Service Ethnographer), David Ruppert , Bill Kight (Whi(Uncompahgre Plateau Project) and Joe

Chapter 5: Perspectives on Religion and the Spirit WorldSites in Rocky Mountain National ParkI Lava Cliffs

109 II Trail Ridge Game Drive .129 III Stone Circles ..132 IV Longs Peak ..139 V

Apache Fort

142 VI Wickiups ..146 VII Old Man Mountain ..147 Chapter 7: Trails, Rivers, Water ..149

Chapter 8: Peeled Trees

Chapter 9: PlantsChapter 10: Memory, Place, Community, Loss

Chapter 11: Management Issues.

187References CitedIllustrations century

viii Map of Ute Territory 23

Map of Arapaho Territory 27 Indians, 2001, Vol.

13, Pt.

2; p.841)

vi An Eagle Trap, n.d.

Courtesy of the Rocky Mountain National Park Historic Photo File; Catalog # 11-Q-2-B; negative #1092

Trail Ridge Game Drive Site, 2002

Rocky Mountain National Park (5LR15), photo by S.McBeth.

Stone Circle at Glacier Gorge 2002

Rocky Mountain National Park (5LR3950), photo by S.McBeth

Lava CliffsPrayer Circle Associated with Vision Wickiup RemainsKawuneeche Valley, 2003 Rocky Mountain National Park, photo by S.McBeth

Northern Ute Clifford Duncan in Rocky Mountain National ParkNorthern Ute: Betsy Chapoose and Clifford Duncan at Lava CliffsUte Mountain Ute Terry Knight and Sally McBeth at Lava Cliffs, 2002

5LR7095), photo by B.Butler

Southern Ute Alden Naranjo at Trail Ridge Game Drive Hunting Blindng Plants in Wild Basinha, praying, offering tobacco, Rocky Geneva Accawanna, Mariah Cuch, TJ Ridail Ridge Game Drive Site, 2004

Rocky Mountain National Park (5LR15), photo by M.


Ute Man, Boy, and TipiDenver Public Library, Western History Collection, Morris W.Abbott, X-30586


Ute GirlDenver Public Library, Western Hist

Weensizeneet, Arapaho Boyern History Collection, X-32360.
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