Higher score free advice 2 paraphrasingHow to Paraphrase EffectivelyThis article is copyright Higher Score, 2007.It may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any form without permission. Introduction
Paraphrase is a verb which means to re-write a phrase or sentence with the same meaning but using different words.
Paraphrasing is a very important skill for most English tests, including TOEFL iBT, IELTS and TOEIC Speaking and Writing.
In TOEFL iBT, for instance, paraphrasing is an important skill in the reading section, in the listening section and, above all, in the speaking and writing sections of the test.
Here is a quick example of paraphrasing using a phrase from the paragraph above:1."Paraphrasing is a very important skill for most English tests." 2."For many tests of English, being skilful at paraphrasing is extremely important."Notice how the paraphrased version (sentence 2) changes some vocabulary (e.g., extremely for very), changes the word order (e.g., tests of English for English tests) and changes the grammar (e.g., being skilful at paraphrasing for Paraphrasing is a very important skill)
These are the three main ways to paraphrase and by combining all of these methods, you can achieve clear and accurate paraphrased sentences.
The next sections will look at these methods in more detail.
Paraphrasing Method 1: Use Different Vocabulary with the Same Meaning
Most students try to use this method, but actually it can be difficult to use.The reason is that although English has many synonyms such as large or big, it is unusual for these words to have exactly the same meaning.
So, if you try to use a lot of synonyms when you paraphrase, you might produce sentences that are not natural English.
Unnatural sentences are likely to reduce your score more than small mistakes because the reader may not understand what you are trying to say.
For example, look at this original sentence and two paraphrased equivalents
"It can be difficult to choose a suitable place to study English."2."It is often a challenge to pick up (x) a relevant (x)school to learn English."3.
"It is sometimes hard to select an appropriate place to learn English."For non-native speakers, these three sentences might look like they have the same meaning.
For native speakers, however, sentence 2 is unnatural.
The first problem is "pick up".
This expression does NOT have the same meaning as "choose", so this part of the paraphrased sentence is actually wrong.
The second problem is the word "relevant".
In some cases, "relevant" and "suitable" are good synonyms but in this example they are not How to Paraphrase EffectivelyThis article is copyright Higher Score, 2007.It may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any form without permission. close in meaning at all.
Sentence 3 is a much better paraphrase of sentence 1 because all of the words have the same meaning.
The best advice is to follow the 100% rule for using synonyms: only use a synonym for a word if you are 100% certain that the new word has 100% the same meaning as the original word.
If you are less than 100% certain, keep the same word and use either method two or method three to paraphrase your sentence.Paraphrasing Method 2: Change the Order of Words
Changing the word order of a phrase or sentence is usually safer than using synonyms because the words are the same, so the meaning must be the same.
However, it is not always easy to decide which words to move or to decide to which position the words should be moved
Also, when you move a word you might need to change some other words, add some other words or cut some other words to ensure that the new sentence is grammatically correct.
Here are two suggestions for how to change the word order without making errors:
a.If the original sentence has two or more clauses, change the order of the clauses.
"If they have some help, most people can paraphrase effectively.
However, practice is important because paraphrasing is difficult."2.
"Most people can paraphrase effectively, if they have some help.
Paraphrasing is difficult, however, so practice is important."
b.If the original sentence has an adjective and noun, change the adjective into a relative clause.
1."Writing essays can be a challenging task."2."Writing essays can be a task which is challenging."
Paraphrasing Method 3: Use Different Grammar
It sounds very difficult to use different grammar, but actually it is easier than changing vocabulary.
In addition, if you change the grammar and make an error, usually the reader will understand what you mean.
However, if you change the vocabulary and make an error, often the reader will not understand what you mean.So, although changing the grammar has some advantages, it is still not easy and you should practice it as often as possible.
Here are two suggestions for how to change the grammar without making errors:How to Paraphrase EffectivelyThis article is copyright Higher Score, 2007.It may not be reproduced in whole or in part in any form without permission.
a.Change some of the words in the original sentence into different parts of speech (you will often need to change the word order and some other words, too).
1."The most effective way to build your English skill is to study regularly."2."The most effective way of building your English skill is to do studying on a regular basis."
b.If the original sentence is in the active voice, change it to passive or vice versa.
1."To improve English, you should learn new vocabulary on a daily basis."2
Exercise On Citation And Paraphrase - Grinnell - Welcome To ...
To give an example of how to paraphrase, we will use as our source passage an article from ... Let’s assume that we have to paraphrase this paragraph. (higherscore.ca)
Paraphrase And Summary - University Of Toronto
What follows is an example of illegitimate paraphrase: ... end of each paragraph is therefore all the citation that is needed. The inclusion of explicit references to (web.grinnell.edu)
English 100 Summary Paragraphs - The Labyrinth And The Fabled …
Example: Jonathan Kozol, in ... Avoid a running paraphrase/summary of the contents of the essay paragraph by paragraph. Your account may be perfectly accurate, ... (utoronto.ca)
"To improve English, new vocabulary should be learned on a daily basis"
By using the methods and ideas given in this article, you should be able to improve your
EcpExercise on Citation and Paraphrase - 1 - Exercise on Citation and Paraphrase - 2 - still show that I understand the intellectual rules by which you operate better than you do.I can show my superiority over you by demonstrating my awareness of what makes you tick.In the end, none of our positions is ultimately superior, but I can at least show myself to be in a superior position for now on the shifting sands of the game we Hyper-irony is the comedic instantiation of the cult of knowingness.
Given the crisis of authority, there are no higher purposes to which comedy can be put, such as moral instruction, theological revelation, or showing how the world is.However, comedy can be used to attack anybody at all who thinks that he or she has any sort of handle on the answer to any major question, not to replace the object of the attack with a better way of looking at things, but merely for the pleasure of the attack, or perhaps for the sense of momentary superiority mentioned earlier.The Simpsons revels in the attack.It treats nearly everything as a target, every stereotypical character, every foible, and every institution.It plays games of one-upsmanship with its audience members by challenging them to identify the avalanche of allusions it throws down to them.And, as Scenes from the Class Struggle in Springfield illustrates, it refrains from taking a position of its ownLets assume that we have to paraphrase this paragraph.We might come up with something like this: yze popular culture, they often link its ideas to those in the wider culture.For example, when Matheson analyzes The Simpsons, he links what he calls the hyper-ironism in the series to the loss of surenessin the wider culture.
In the wider culture, he cites the way painters, feeling that painting had no broad purpose, turned instead to examining the history of painting, and he notes that Rorty, in deciphering Derrida, turned to taking a critical view of older ideas.In referring to the series, he notes how the writers target every aspect of life and talk down to their audience, making multiple allusions to culture more or less to see if the audience can catch them.Through showing these parallel trends, Matheson implicitly defines the term hyper-ironism as the tearing down of past institutions without the ability to offer an improved replacement.Mathesons analysis typifies the wide-ranging connections made by many authors discussing popular culture from an academic perspective (119-120).Note carefully the decisionsabout how to convey meaning, about what to leave out and what to include, about the level of vocabulary to usethat had to be made even for this one paragraph of paraphrase.In paraphrase, your voice should predominate, but you offer it to
This introductory clause announces that the subject of this paragraph will be the broad subject of philosophers analyzing popular culture, even though the subject of Mathesons paragraph, the phenomenon of hyper-ironism, is much more specific.
Note the transition For example that seeks to establish the relationship between the opening introductory sentence and the one following it.
Note that in this paraphrase
there are no quotation marks around the word hyper-ironism.
Since Matheson did not invent the term and since the use of the term is attributed to him, quotation marks are not necessary.
This is a judgment call; it could be argued.
The phrase loss of sureness, attempts to paraphrase what Matheson calls the crisis of authority.
The paraphrase does not carry all the overtones implied by crisis of authority, but it conveys enough of it for use in this particular paragraph.
These guesses, weighings of purposes and words, are the sorts of calls you will have to make when you paraphrase.
This phrase is a very broad statement of ideas implied by deconstruction.
Again, though some could argue that this phrase misrepresents the complex of ideas indicated by the word deconstruction, it seems sufficient here, where it is not the purpose to explain complex philosophical notions.
Compare this brief summary phrase with the several sentences Matheson takes to convey this idea.
Though some could argue that the ideas are too compressed in the paraphrase, and that the proper balance between them is distorted by the paraphrase, this rendering puts what Matheson says about the series into one sentence, to make it parallel to the sentence earlier in the paragraph beginning In the wider culture.
This phrase is a summary of what Matheson does in the paragraph.Exercise on Citation and Paraphrase - 3 - the author you are paraphrasing to give a fair and precise rendering of the passage.The decisions you must make when paraphrasing exemplify why paraphrase is such a difficult The Works Cited entry in the MLA style would look like this: Work Cited Matheson, Carl.The Simpsons, Hyper-Irony, and the Meaning of Life.
The Simpsons and Philosophy: The DOh of Homer.
Ed.William Irwin, Mark T.Conrad, and Aeon J.Skoble.
Peru, Il: Carus Publishing Company, 2001.
Block QuotationIn writing an academic paper you may want to incorporate a long section of anothers text into your own.
In such a case, you may use a block quotation, where you indent to show that the source is a quotation.Once you have done so, you need not surround the quotation with quotation marks, although you should reproduce any punctuation the original passage Be wary of using block quotations too often: if your paper consists of large dollops of someone elses writing interspersed with only smidgens of your own, your professor may rightly accuse you of poor writing.Remember that, generally speaking, the goal of writing a college paper is not to show that you can copy down another authors words but to demonstrate that you can digest and explain the material in your own words.When you use a block quotation,