Direct And Consensual Pupillary Reflexes

Direct And Consensual Pupillary Reflexes

Reflexes and signs
1 A.

In neurological examination the term refers to specific motor responses elicited by specific stimuli (e.g., the asymmetric tonic neck reflex).In ophthalmic examination the term refers to incident light retroreflected from various ocular optical surfaces (i.e., retina, cornea, lens).reflex (reflex) (refleks) [L.reflexus, past participle of reflectere to bend he involuntary activity.See reflex arc and reflex action.

3.a reflection or a reflected image of an object.1.

abdominal reflexes,

contractions of the abdominal muscles on scratching of the abdominal wall.2.abdominocardiac reflex,

any reflex in the heart produced by stimulating the abdominal sympathetic nerves.See also Livierato's sign, under sign.

3.Abrams' heart reflex,

contraction of the myocardium, with reduction in the area of cardiac dullness, which results when the skin of the precordial region is irritated.It is observed with the fluoroscope.4.

accommodation reflex,

the coordinated changes that occur when the eye adapts itself for near vision; they are constriction of the pupil, convergence of the eyes, and increased convexity of the lens.5.

Achilles tendon reflex,

triceps surae r.6.

acoustic reflex,

contraction of the stapedius muscle in response to intense sound.

Called also cochleostapedial r.and stapedial r.7.

acquired reflex,

conditioned response.8.adductor reflex of foot,

Hirschberg's sign.

9.adductor reflex of thigh,

on tapping the tendon of the adductor magnus with the thigh in abduction, contraction of the adductors results.10.

allied reflexes,

reflexes in which two afferent stimuli use the same common pathway or produce effects on two synergistic muscles.11.

anal reflex,

contraction of the anal sphincter on scratching or other irritation of the skin of the anus.12.ankle reflex,

triceps surae r.


antagonistic reflexes,

reflex movements occurring not in the muscle which has been stretched but in its antagonist.14.anticus reflex,

Piotrowski's sign.15.

antigravity reflexes,

reflexes that keep the antigravity muscles in extension to hold the body upright.16.

Aschner's reflex,

oculocardiac r.17.

atriopressor reflex,

rise in arterial blood pressure (vasoconstriction) attributed to a change of pressure in the right atrium and great veins.18.attention reflex of pupil,

alteration of size in the pupil when the attention is suddenly fixed; called also Piltz's r.19.attitudinal reflexes,

those reflexes having to do with the position of the body, primarily controlled by input from receptors in the utriculus; called also statotonic r's.20.audito-oculogyric reflex,

a turning of both eyes in the direction of a sudden sound.21
direct and consensual pupillary reflexes
.auditory reflex,

any reflex caused by stimulation of the auditory (vestibulocochlear) nerve, especially momentary closure of both eyes produced by a sudden sound.22.

auricle reflex,

involuntary movement of the auricle of the ear produced by auditory stimuli (more pronounced in some other animals than in humans).23.auriculocervical nerve reflex,

Snellen's r.

24.auriculopalpebral reflex,

Kisch's r.

2 25.autonomic reflex,

a response of smooth muscle, glands, and conducting tissue of the heart, which alters the functional state of the innervated organ.

26.axon reflex,

a reflex resulting from a stimulus applied to one branch of a nerve which sets up an impulse that moves centrally to the point of division of the nerve where it is reflected down the other branch to the effector organ.27.Babinski's reflex,

dorsiflexion of the big toe on stimulating the sole of the foot; normal in infants but in others a sign of a lesion in the central nervous system, particularly in the pyramidal tract.Called also Babinski's phenomenon or sign and toe phenomenon or sign..28.Babkin reflex,

pressure by the examiner's thumbs on the palms of both hands of the infant results in opening of the infant's mouth; it is elicited in many newborn infants, normal and abnormal, except when lethargic or comatose.


Bainbridge reflex,

rise in pressure in, or increased distention of, the large somatic veins or the right atrium, results in acceleration of the heart beat. reflex,

a pathological reflex in which movement of one leg is followed by similar movements of the other leg when the patient is recumbent; indicative of a lesion, often a tumor, in the prefrontal area.31.Barkman's reflex,

contraction of the rectus abdominis muscle on the same side after stimulation of the skin just below one of the nipples.32.

baroreceptor reflex,

the reflex responses to stimulation of baroreceptors of the carotid sinus and aortic arch, regulating blood pressure by controlling heart rate, strength of heart contractions, and diameter of blood vessels.

33.basal joint reflex,

finger-thumb r.

34.Bechterew's reflex,

Bekhterev's r.35.behavior reflex,

conditioned response.36.Bekhterev's reflex,


Bekhterev's deep r.


hypogastric r.

3.nasal r.

4.paradoxical pupillary r.37.Bekhterev's deep reflex,

with corticospinal tract lesions, if the toes and foot are passively flexed in a plantar direction and then released, they will flex in a dorsal direction and the knees and hip will also flex.38.Bekhterev-Mendel reflex,

Mendel-Bekhterev r.39.Bezold reflex,

Bezold-Jarisch reflex,

a cardiovascular reflex occurring upon stimulation of chemoreceptors, primarily in the left ventricle, by certain antihypertensive alkaloids and similar substances; afferent vagal fibers carry the impulses to the medulla oblongata, after which imp
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