Apa6theditionAMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) FORMAT (6th Edition, 2009) This crib sheet is a guide to the APA style and is not intended to replace the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition.Only selected examples were chosen for inclusion here.
For other examples, see the printed manual.
Journal article with DOI assignedLiefert, W., Lerman, Z., Gardner, B., & Serova, E.(2005).Agricultural labor in Russia: Efficiency and profitability.
Review of Agricultural Economics, 27(3), 412-417. Journal article without DOI assigned, found in library database Court.Canadian Review of American Studies, 39(1), 65-84.Retrieved from EBSCO MegaFile database.Magazine article without DOI assigned, found in library database Hubbard, L.
(2009, May 11).
Surging demand for defunct energy drink.Convenience Store News, 45Retrieved August 4, 2009, from EBSCO MegaFILE database.
Magazine article without DOI assigned, with no author, found in library database Car phones unsafe at any speed.(1996, July).Safety & Health.154(1), 102.Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.vailable from the publisher (This is an example of the page number not given)
& Huglen, M.(2004).The rhetoric of Bush's war on evil.KB Journal.1(1).Retrieved from article with DOI assigned and more than seven authors mortality in captive lesser Kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) at Basle Zoo and its relation to nutrition and husbandry.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 39(1), 86-91.
doi:10.1638 /2007-0004.1 Edited book Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C.R.
(1980).Bilingual education.New York: Praeger.Book (two authors) Strunk, W., & White, E.B.(1979).The elements of style (3rd ed.).
New York: Macmillan.Article or cedited book (print) Sheets, B.(2006).The cost of lingering arm injuries.
Selig.& W.Selig (Eds.).
A compilation of long stories (pp.211-234).
Milwaukee, WI: MB Press.Chapter or section in an Internet document Thompson, G.
(2003).Youth coach handbook.In Joe Soccer.Retrieved September 17, 2004, from Doctoral dissertation, from a commercial database Olsen, G.W.(1985).
Campus child care within the public supported post-secondary educational institutions in the state of Wisconsin (Doctoral dissertation).
Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.
(Publication No.AAT 8528441) Online reference work Poi (food).(2009).In Wikipedia.Retrieved August 3, 2009 from Video Blog Post Redbone, L.(n.d.).Seduced Leon Redbone.[Video file].Retrieved from Online document with government author Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
(2001).Glacial habitat restoration areas.Retrieved from Personal communications Personal communications may be things such as email messages, interviews, speeches, and telephone conversations.Because the information is not retrievable they should not appear in the reference list.
They should look as follows:
In a recent interview (S.Shirley, per
Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source To cite secondary sources, refer to both sources in the text, but include in the References list only the source that you actually used.For example, suppose you read Fielder (2008) and would like to paraphrase the following sentence within that article: Braun (2008) defined bat speed as "the ability to catch up to a baseball with a moving bat" (p.11).In this case, the in-text citation would be: (Braun, 2008, as cited in Fielder, 2008).
Fielder (2008) would be fully referenced within the list of References.Reference citations in text
To refer to an item in the list of references from the text, an author-date method should be used.
That is, use the surname of the author (without suffixes) and the year of the publication in the text at appropriate points.Example: Researchers have indicated that more is expected of students in higher education (Hudson, 2001, p.8) and secondary education (Taylor & Hornung, 2002, p.31).One author Issac (2001) indicated in his research..
In a recent study, research indicates (Isaac, 2001) Two or more authors When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs.For works with three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs
In subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by et al.Specific parts of a source (Yount & Molitor, 1982, p.19) (Cooper, 1983, chap.4) When a work has no authors Cite in text the first few words of what appears first for the entry on the list (usually the title) and the year.
Please forward any comments or suggestions regarding this crib sheet to Owen Williams.
Willi099@umn.edu Prepared by Owen Williams, University of Minnesota, Crookston
Last updated October 28, 2010.
Apa example(APA), but is not a comprehensive guide.For all rules and requirements of APA edition of the hanging indent method (all lines afteSee also: American Psychological Association, 2010.
(at Reference Desk)
Washington, DC: Ameri(at Reference Desk) APA uses the author-date method of citation.The last name of the author and the date of publication are inserted in the text in the appropriate place.
When quoting or
paragraph number, as well.and use quotation marks.If a direct quote is
than 40 words, make the quotation a free-and DO NOT use quotation marks.
One work by one author:In one developmental study (Smith, 1990), children learned...
OR In the study by Smith (1990), primary school children...
OR In 1990, Smiths study of primary school children Works by multiple authors:When a work has 2 authors cite both names every time you reference the work in the text.
l the author names the first time the reference
For 6 or more authors, cite only the name of the first author followed by et alWorks by no identified author: When a resource has no named author, cite thquotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or Web The site seemed to indicate support for homeThe brochure argues for homeschooling (Treat reference to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation like works Two or more works in the same parenthetical citation:Citations of two or more works in the same pa Peterson, 1995, 1998; Smith, 1990) suggest rmation from a specific table, The painting was assumed to be by Matisse If, as in the instance of online material, the numbers, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it.This allows the reader to locate the text in the source.For example: d by the doctors bedside manner (Smith, CITATIONS IN A REFERENCE LIST: or name, publication date, title, and publication information.Include the issue number if For information obtained electronically or online include the DOI:
- a unique alphanumeric string assigned to idenits location on the internet.The
When a DOI is used ininformation is needed.Use this format for the DOI in references: doi:xxxxxxx
e the home page URL of the journal or of the add a period after a URL, to prevent the imprebase information.
Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material has changed over time.
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E.B.(1979).
The guide to everything and then some more stuff.
New York, NY: Macmillan.
Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Bergquist, J.M.(1992).German Journal Article with DOI:Paivio, A.(1975).
Perceptual comparisons through the mind's eye.Journal Article without DOI (when DOI is not available):Becker, L.J., & Seligman, C.(1981).Welcome to the energy crisis.Hamfi, A.G.(1981).
The funny nature of dogs.(2), 38
-48.Retrieved from rmers reap conservation's rewards.The New York .
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com Encyclopedia Articles: (Vol.
1, pp.319-327).New York, NY: Wiley.
Developmental Cambridge encyclopedia of child developmentRetrieved from and Research Reports (often with corporate Reviews:.
Is modeling knowing? [Review of the book American Journal of Simmons Market Research Bureau.(2000).
New York, NY: Author.Lincoln, D.S.
(2009, January 23).The likeness and sameness of the ones in the middle.
[Web log post].Retrieved Website with no author or date of publication:from Harvard, Psychology of
Population website, http://harvard.edu/data/index.php e source material may change over timeent, provide the homepage URL.
Reprint from Another Source:Newton, W.(1999).
Return to Mars.
In C.Mari (Ed.), Space Exploration41).New York, NY: H.W.
Wilson.(Reprinted from followed by the editor of the reprintiparenthetical citation, it is necessary to name the author of the book, while the reviewer is named to distinguish.